The first edition of this book was published by Chapman and Hall Ltd. in 1996. The first edition contained nine chapters and, for all except one chapter, the original chapter authors agreed to update their chapter. Comparing these chapters gives the reader an idea of the development over a time span of more than 10 years between the two editions. In the preparation of the second edition we decided to add more chapters reflecting some important fields with significant contributions to present day fishery research. These are the use of internet for searching of information (Chapter 2), and the present state and use of remote sensing (Chapter 5), ecosystem modeling (Chapter 8) and visualization of data (Chapter 10). This second edition provides a valuable sampling of contemporary applications. Scientists have an opportunity to evaluate the suitability of different computer technology applications to their particular research situation thereby taking advantage of the experience of others. The chapters that follow are the fruition of this idea. The history behind this book started in 1989 when we were asked by Dr. Vidar Wespestad (previously: Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA) to prepare and convene a session at the 1992 World Fishery Congress in Athens, Greece on computer applications in fisheries. We agreed that the idea was a good one and the computer session in 1992 turned out to be very successful.
The purpose ofthis book isto provide acritical appraisal oftheconcept thatschizophreniacan becaused by viralinfections. The ability of viruses to cause psychiatric symptoms is not in question - the mental depression following a bout with mononucleosis or hallucinations associated with herpesencephalitisarewell-described examples. However, aviraloriginfor chronic disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, is another matter. The claim of an infectious etiology for these disorders has beenmetinthemainstream scientific community byavagueskepticism that occasionally erupts into stringent criticism. Too often, however, the viral hypotheses of these disorders is simply disregarded; marginalized with the hopethat itwillgoaway sothatthe "serious" researchaimed atuncovering therealcauseoftheseillnesses willnotloseitsfocus.This beingsaid, much of the criticism is valid, and as a researcher with formal training in both neuroscience and viral immunology, I view the proposed viral etiology of thesedisorderswithaskepticaleye. Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the growing number of well-performed studies pointing to the role of viral infections as important antecedents of schizophreniaand other disorders inthe schizophreniaspectrum. Inthe last 30 years there have been hundreds of articles in peer-reviewed journals presenting evidenceorpositingtheoriestosuggestthatatleastsomecasesof schizophrenia have a viral origin. Moreover, many schizophrenia experts have been calling for the recognition that schizophrenia isa heterogeneous group of disorders that may have different causes. This idea of disease heterogeneity is reaching a crescendo, and there is undoubtedly a place for viruses among alternative etiologies; but we have to look. The intellectual climate tolooknowisbetterthanitwas20yearsago, inpartbecause inthe last 2 decades a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology (e.g. gastric ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma) have been ascribedtoinfectiouscauses.
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